Monday, August 08, 2005

The Necessity of Chivalry

The word chivalry has meant at different times a good many different things--from heavy cavalry to giving a woman a seat in a train. But if we want to understand chivalry as an ideal distinct from other ideals--if we want to isolate that particular conception of the man comme il faut which was the special contribution of the Middle Ages to our culture--we cannot do better than turn to the words addressed to the greatest of all the imaginary knights in Malory's Morte D'arthur. "Thou wert the meekest man", says Sir Ector to the dead Launcelot. "Thou were the meekest man that ever ate in hall among ladies; and thou were the sternest knight to thy mortal foe that ever put spear in the rest."*

The important thing about this ideal is, of course, the double demand it makes on human nature. The knight is a man of blood and iron, a man familiar with the sight of smashed faces and the ragged stumps of lopped-off limbs; he is also a demure, almost a maidenlike, guest in hall, a gentle, modest, unobtrusive man. He is not a compromise or happy mean between ferocity and meekness; he is fierce to the nth and meek to the nth. When Launcelot heard himself pronounced the best knight in the world, "he wept as he had been a child that had been beaten".

What, you may ask, is the relevance of this idea to the modern world? It is terribly relevant. It may or may not be practicable--the Middle Ages notoriously failed to obey it--but it is certainly practical; practical as the fact that men in a desert must find water or die.[...]

The medieval ideal brought together two things which have no natural tendency to gravitate towards one another. It brought them together for that very reason. It taught humility and forbearance to the great warrior because everyone knew by experience how much he usually needed that lesson. It demanded valour of the urbane and modest man because everyone knew that he was as likely as not to be a milksop.

In so doing, the Middle Ages fixed on the one hope of the world. It may or may not be possible to produce by the thousand men who combine the two sides of Launcelot's character. But if it is not possible, then all talk of any lasting happiness or dignity in human society is pure moonshine.

If we cannot produce Launcelots, humanity falls into two sections--those who can deal in blood and iron but cannot be "meek in hall", and those who are "meek in hall" but useless in battle--for the third class, who are both brutal in peace and cowardly in war, need not here be discussed. When this disassociation of the two halves of Launcelot occurs, history becomes a horribly simple affair. The ancient history of the Near East is like that. Hardy barbarians swarm down from their highlands and obliterate a civilization. Then they become civilized themselves and go soft. Then a new wave of barbarians comes down and obliterates them.[...]

The ideal embodied in Launcelot is "escapism" in a sense never dreamed of by those who use that word; it offers the only possible escape from a world divided between wolves who do not understand, and sheep who cannot defend, the things which make life desirable.
~C.S. Lewis, Present Concerns, "The Necessity of Chivalry" (1st published in Time and Tide, Aug. 1940)

* Sir Thomas Malory, Le Morte Darthur (1485)
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On this day:

1933 Warren Lewis and C.S. Lewis visited St. Mark's Church in Belfast to view the stained glass window they had commissioned in memory of their parents.
(from Around the Year with C.S. Lewis and His Friends)

5 Comment(s):

At Mon Aug 08, 03:07:00 PM EST, Blogger Sandicomm said...

If we use the quotation from Mallory as the most pure definition of chivalry, then one can easily see that this is the birth of the Renaissance Courtier (who is still very much our ideal): a man who excels in all fields, who enjoys education and intelligence for its own sake, is also a good swordsman, actor, musician, and draftsman. But the Courtier, to me, isn't really meek in hall but bold in everything.

That quotation also reminds me of the samurai. I'm not entirely sure if this was part of bushido (the samurai's honor code), but they were expected to be good, gentle, law-abiding citzens at home but fierce and honorable in the battlefield. In a way, this sort of proves Lewis's point, that chivalry (as it's called by us Westerners) is a universal ideal: be meek and humble with guests and friends, but bold and fearless in your pursuits. Don't be a major jerk, but don't be a wuss either.

 
At Tue Aug 09, 05:16:00 AM EST, Blogger Arevanye said...

Dictionary.com has two definitions for meek: The first is "Showing patience and humility; gentle." The second is " Easily imposed on; submissive." I think the first is the applicable one here, and it reminded me of that passage in Psalms 37: But the meek shall inherit the earth, And shall delight themselves in the abundance of peace.

I feel that Lewis is pointing out that the "abundance of peace" cannot be kept without the other side of chivalry, which is valor and ferocity. But also that it takes patience and humility to understand the true ideals worth fighting for.

Nice to see you, sandi!

 
At Wed Aug 10, 07:45:00 PM EST, Anonymous KiwiKimi said...

"Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls." Matthew 11:29.

A high endorsement indeed of meekness.

 
At Sun Mar 09, 06:16:00 PM EDT, Blogger achilles9 said...

Is this the entire essay? I don't own Present Concerns, and I was just wondering...

 
At Sun Mar 09, 09:42:00 PM EDT, Blogger Arevanye said...

No, it is not the entire essay. There is quite a bit missing, indicated by the ellipses [...]

 

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